High rise building defined as those structures which is taller than average height of buildings. These buildings consist of more than 14 floors. Nowadays there’s more tradition of high rise buildings.
What is high rise building? Mid rise vs high rise building:
The building is considered a high rise building if it has 14-40 storeys and the mid rise building consist of 3 to 14 storeys.
Skyscraper was refer to the buildings having storeys between 15-20 but nowadays, it is refer to the tall buildings having 40 to 50 storeys. How much does it cost to build a skyscraper? It depends on the region but a rough estimate about per floor is $7.2 millions in Chicago and $15 millions in New york.
How long does it take to build a skyscraper? On an average skyscraper takes 5 years or more to be built.
Construction of high rise building:
High rise buildings are made up with steel or reinforced concrete. The economy is major factor to be consider in high rise building construction, whether it is commercial construction, residential or industrial.
There more tradition growing up for high rise and multi storeys building because more construction can be done on smaller area.
As it is high rise building, it needs more construction material comparatively, which needs more space and energy to store material. To encounter the space and energy problem, there’s just a single storey material is stored.
Following are the stages of high rise building.
Study of plan layout in high rise building:
Before the initiation of cosntruction work, drawings & plan of structure should be assessed and analyzed in detail with accuracy. Different aspects and stages of constructions are analyzed and construction work is divided into groups.
If the construction project is wide, then it is divided into zones for better quality control & supervision. It is also decided which part of structure is to be built first and which part will be the last in this stage.
Clearance of site:
After the detail study of plans, the step of site clearance is started. Bushes and plants are cleaned. If the ground isn’t level then level it and make it smooth.
If there is accumulated water on ground, make arrangements for water clearance. If there’s garbage on site, make it clear.
Excavation for foundation:
The raft foundation is commonly used for high rise and multi storey buildings. For the foundation there’s a excavation process according to design. The depth of excavation can be same for whole structure or it can be different at different point.
The excavation process is done with heavy machinery, it boost the efficiency of work. Excavated soil is the placed near the project so it can be used for filling if needed.
Procurement of material:
The materials used for construction is accumulated on site and stored suitable way. Materials used in initial stages are stored firstly. Material that can be used in next 7 days should be available in advance.
Material should be stored in well manner to protect it from spoilage and protect it from theft.
Steel bar is cut and bend up in required lengths before the use. This work must be completed at least two days before. Labours and workers arrangement should also be done before time.
Laying of foundation:
After the excavation of one part, foundation construction is started, while the second part is excavated. Sometimes there’s a need of piles in foundation, if the bearing capacity of soil is less.
Structure is dependent on foundation and concrete quality, so the special attention and care should be taken at the time foundation construction.
Construction of storeys:
Multi storey or high rise buildings are design and constructed in frame structure system. In this system the structure load and the load upon the structure is acted on the coulmn and beams, and bear by these members.
In frame structure system, walls are just used for partition. Step by step columns are constructed for each storey and all the structure elements have fixed joint.
Theres more use of steel in high rise buildings, and sometimes ends of two steel bars need to be jointed. This joint process is done with the help of welding, but it is better to do it by overlapping process.
The overlapping length should be 50d to 60d times to diameter of steel bar. Further special care should be given at the time of curing.
After the frame structure is completed, partition walls are then constructed. These walls are made up of brick masonary or blocks. Partition walls have thickness of 11 cm (4.5 inches), And the mortar 1:4 mix ratio is used.
These partition walls shouldn’t be built up more than 1.3m (4 feet) in height. Form work and scaffolding used in high rise buildings should be of high quality.
Electric supply in high rise building:
Nowadays concealed wiring system is being used in high rise building for electric supply. In this system electric conduits are installed in slab before placing of concrete. These conduits are separate for each storey.
Conduits and electric boards are installed in walls and beams by digging a groove. After doing plaster, electric wires of required size and fittings are then installed in these conduits.
After completion of wiring, wiring test is then conducted, which shows the errors & faulted connection. After that site incharge/inspector give the completion certificate, then main electric connection is installed at the end.
Water supply and sanitary:
Water conduits and sanitary pipes are pre installed before the plaster work. After that water supply and sanitary fittings are installed. After the internal installation is completed, drainage and water supply is connected with main service line.
Sanitary and water supply conduits & fittings should of good quality, because the faulted or low quality material will cause bad affects on structure.
Fuel gas supply:
Gas supply conduits and other fittings are pre installed before plaster same as in water & electric supply. Gas supply line are installed on the outer surface of rooms wall. Process should be done with special care/attention.
This is the last stage of building construction. Plaster/pointing, white wash/distamper/painting is included in this stage. Tile and marble work for floor is also include in this stage.
Surface finishing really contribute in high rise building. So there shouldnt be any error in this stage. Paint work should be done on dry plaster and before painting, wooden shavings should be spread to prevent spots on floor.