In this article, we will discuss about stair and stairs meaning in hindi. Further we discuss the stair tiles, modern stairs railing designs in steel and stair grill design.
What is stair and parts of stair?
A continuous whole set of steps to join the two floors of structure is called stair. There’s two basic stair parts, run and riser. The room or area where it is constructed is called stair case. The rectangular shaped unit is called step.
The continuity of steps is flight. A flight length usually consist of 3 to 15 steps. If there’s more than 15 steps, there’s more flight provided. There’s a space provided b/w two flights to stay, which is usually bigger than step is landing.
The top horizontal surface of step is going, while its distance is called tread. The size/length of tread should be between 25cm to 30cm (10 to 12 inches). The vertical surface distance of step is riser. The height of riser should be b/w 15cm to 22.5cm (6 to 9 inches). If the step is rectangular (which is common) it is called flier step.
Sometimes the triangular shape steps are provided on landing, which is term as winder. How much should be width of stairs? The width of stair shouldn’t be less tha 3feet (36 inches) or 92cm.
Stairs meaning in Hindi:
Generally stairs means set of steps that lead you from one floor to another. Stairs meaning in Hindi is seediyan (सीढ़ियां), in Urdu its (سیڑھیاں).
If we talk about stair tiles design, there numerous tiles variety. Some people prefer granite marble over tile for staircase but tiles are new & unique trend. If we come to tiles mostly use tiles are porcelain and ceramic tiles.
Modern stairs railing designs in steel:
If we talk about steel railing design for stairs, there’s a wide range of railing variety in steel. Square steel railing, round pipe railing, wooded steel railing, glass steel railing etc.
Stair grill design:
Stairs grill railing design is another best option instead of steel. If you don’t like steel railing or steel shine, you can make grill training. Wrought iron grill gives modern look to staircase. Grill railing has many unique and new designs with addition of cables, rod, and glass. Although you can you can choose different color combinations of you choice for grills.
Stairs type according to shape:
According to material stairs are build with wood/timber, steel, brick masonry, stone masonry and concrete etc. According to shapes, following are stairs shapes such as straight flight, quarter turn, half turn, geometrical, bifurcating and circular stairs.
Winder (triangular steps) are provided at turning point instead of landing. Nowadays escalators are being use in buildings to provide ease, which has shape as stair and move up and down.
Parts of stair:
Following are the parts of stair and their names.
- Pitch or Slope
- Newel Post
- Head Room
Two or more than two steps is flight. For low height single flight is provided while for more height two or more flights are provided.
To support the flight and steps, there’s a inclined slab is provided below the flight is term as waist.
A flat floor between two floor is provided to stay, which is landing. Its purpose is to stay if you are exhaust.
Flier in staircase:
Rectangular steps or commonly use steps that have uniform shape and size are called fliers of stair.
When there is less staircase area, there’s triangular shape steps are provided instead of landing, these triangular shape steps are winders.
Top horizontal surface of step is going.
Length of top horizontal surface of step is run or tread.
Veritical surface of step is riser.
Height of vertical surface (riser) is rise.
Pitch or slope:
The angle between the floor level and stair stringer is pitch or slope. It should be between 25 to 40 degree.
To keep the stair safe while going up and down, there’s a steel or wooden strip is provided which is term as hand rail. It is provided parallel but opposite to wall.
To support the handrail, and join it with stairs step a vertical support is provided which is stair baluster. Baluster can be of steel and wooden.
At the start or end of stairs, there’s a more thicker & stronger vertical support is provided which is newel post. Handrail, baluster & newel post are parts of railing.
The height from tread of step to the slab is term as head room. Head room shouldn’t be less than 2.5 meter (8 feet).
A little grown up front edge of run is nosing. It is to prevent the surface water entering into joint and as well as for beauty.
Characteristics of good stair:
Stairs is one of important part of building. A good stair should have following characteristics.
- Stairs should be in the center of building, so everyone can access it easily.
- All the steps of stairs should be constant & well constructed.
- Slope of stairs should be between 25 to 40 degree angle.
- Width of stairs should must not be less then 3 feet (85 cm), so the two people can move up & down easily at same time.
- Height of head room shouldn’t be less then 2.5 meter (8 feet).
- Height of hand rail from steps shouldn’t be less than 85 cm (3 feet).
- There shouldn’t be more than 15 steps, nor less than 3 steps in a single flight.
- Material used in stairs construction should be of good quality. e.g. R.C.C, steel etc.
- There should be proper ventilation for stairs.
Keep it in mind to provide ease for the users, while designing of stairs. Further the design make it more attractive. Use this formula and method for stair calculation.
Tread & run/riser calculation:
Following are the method and formula for run/riser calculation & tread calculation in feet and meters.
Formula to calculate nos of riser = height of stair case/height of riser
- Let suppose height of floor is 10′ (3 m) = 120″ (304.8 cm)
- Take a riser height 7″ (17.78 cm). (which is most commonly use).
- Nos of riser= 120″/7″ = 17 (in inches)
- Nos of riser= 304.8/17.78 = 17 (in cm)
- For tread simply deduct 1 from riser.
- Nos of tread = 17-1 = 16.
Stair stringer calculation:
Stringer is basically the inclined length of stair flight. To calculate the stringer you just simple apply the Pythagorean theorem. Following are the method and formula for stair stringer calculation.
- Measure the total rise of stair (height from the floor level to end point of staircase).
- Measure the total run of the stair (horizontal length of staircase).
- (Stringer length)2 = (rise2 + run2).
- Stringer = under root of (102 + 122)= under root (244) = 15.62 feet.
For example Pythagorean theorem is Hypotenuous2 = Base2 + prependicular2.
Stair angle calculation:
Following are the method and formula for stair angle calculation.
- To calculate the angle of stair simply take the vertical measurement of riser which is rise, and then take measurement of run.
- The angle calculation formula is (tan inverse) Tan-1 (Rise/run).
- Tan-1 × (7″/10″). [commonly use rise and run]
- The angle of stair = 35°.
Problem/error in stair calculation design:
These 17 steps are provided in a single flight, but above we red that there shouldn’t be more than 15 steps in a flight. So what we do to counter this problem.
Simply increase a little in riser height can solve this issue. Like: take riser height= 8″, so the total steps will be 15, if you take riser height= 9″, total steps will be 13.
This simple thumb rule can be use, but if you dont want to inrease thr riser height, you can provide 2 flights. But if you have less space/stair room area then go with increment in riser height .
Types of stair according to material:
Following are the materials that can be use in stairs construction.
The wooden stairs made up with all timber. Before the use of concrete, wood were preffered for stairs casting. But there were demerit, it wasn’t fire resistant.
But nowadays wood is expensive, the places where wood is cheap there’s already wood is being used. This type of stairs are joined with the help of steel nails and wooden pins.
Metal and steel is being use in stairs casting which is metal stair. These are made up with stringer and metal channels. In this type there aren’t riser provided but just treads.
Sometimes it fully metal stairs, but nowadays there’s a marble slab provided at tread. These stairs are usually use at places, where wear and tear produced e.g. godowns, factories. They are strong+durable & fire resistant.
Stairs that are build with concrete. These stairs are cheap, easy to construct, Stronger and durable. These are very popular in modern construction. Concrete stairs has two types.
It is manufactured with plain concrete sills or precast concrete in a controlled enviroment, which is then install on site.Sometime steel bars used in precast manufacturing while it doesn’t used in plain concrete.
R.C.C stairs are made up with reinforced concrete. On the exterior surface of stairs, tile and marble are placed. This make it more attractive, but make sure that tread shouldn’t be much slippery.
R.C.C & precast stairs are most commonly used nowadays.
Following are the advantages of R.C.C stairs:
- R.C.C stairs can be made up in any shape.
- R.C.C stairs are durable.
- Its fire resistant.
- It don’t produce more sound while walking upon.
- It looks more attractive, if constructed well.
- R.C.C stair is easy to clean, further low maintenance cost.