In this article, we will discuss about the different types of concrete? Further you will learn different types of concrete finish?
What are the different types of concrete:
There’re many different types of concrete used in construction field, such as, plain, reinforced, fiber, high desnsity, high strength, light weight, precast, readymix concrete etc. But the most commonly used type is ordinary or plain concrete. Most common concrete mix grade is M15 (1:2:4).
Concrete is a composition of cemenet, sand, aggregates and water. When these materials mix up they form a paste which get harder over time to achieve ultimate strength. A mix grade of 1:2:4 means, 1 part of cement, 2 parts of sand and 4 parts of aggregates. As it is ordinary concrete mix grade so the water cement ratio for this mix is (0.40 to 0.45) 40% to 45% to the weight of cement.
In concrete technology, there’s variety of types are being use on construction field. Day to day more new concrete types are being getting introduce. The classification of concrete types are based on following factors.
- Material used in mix.
- Stress conditions.
- Mixture density.
Today concrete is being use everywhere, it gets much importance because it is use in every type of construction e.g buildings, roads, heighways, airports, tunnels, dams etc. In building construction, it is use from lower part to the top story, such as in foundations, sub-structure, beams, columns, floors and slab casting.
Some types of Concrete are also use in water storage, water transportation e.g in pipelines casting, canals & reservoirs. It is also use for some specific construction purposes such as fire resisting, sound proofing, water proofing etc.
The ultimate strength of concrete depends upon several factors.
- Aggregate size and nature.
- Mix design ratio. (cement:sand:aggregates)
- Water cement ratio.
- Mixing methodology.
Types of concrete finish:
According to texture and their appearance there are seven different types of concrete finish. Such as trowel finish, broom finish, stamp finish, salt finish, expose finish, color finish and polish finish. The name concrete finish was given according to the tool, materail & texture being used or the texture being drawn.
Troweled finish is a common finish being used for patios, driveways, car ramps and basements. The surface of this finish is smooth. Trowel is used to smoother the surface so the name troweled finish is given because of the tool. Trowel is smooth steel blade with handle used to push-pull to smooth the concrete surface.
Broom finish of concrete is rough texture of concrete by dragging broom/lines on freshly place troweled surface of concrete. It is use to provide slip resistant surface. Broom finish is use for patios, driveways, rigid pavements and ramps.
Stamped finish of concrete is obtain by drawing patterns or shapes on fresh troweled surface of concrete. After drying the stamp concrete texture is like wood finishing or different patterns.
Salt finish of concrete is obtain by inserting coarse crystal of salt into smooth surface of fresh concrete with the help of roller. After concrete is set wash it of with water.
Exposed aggregate finish:
Exposed aggregate finish is obtained by distributing evenly aggregate into concrete with minimum of air void. After the setting of concrete, the polisher is use to polish the top surface of concrete.There’s also a sand finish which is obtain by mixture of concrete sand with cement and water. Its appearance is hard sandy soil as on beaches.
Polished finish of concrete is obtain by the grinding and polishing of top surface of dry surface of concrete with the help of mechanical tools and chemicals.
Colored finish of concrete is accomplish by adding the pigment in to concrete. The texture and the surface is trowel or stamp in colored finish.
Types of concrete:
There’s almost 26 types of concrete but the followings are the different most used concrete types.
Plain or Ordinary concrete:
Plain concrete is most commonly concrete type which is use for building pavement casting, beams and columns of buildings. It is the grade mix of 1:2:4 where the major constituents are cement, sand and aggregates.
If there isn’t a need of high compressive strength, it can be use for dams. As it doesn’t have reinforcement, it is week in tension.
It has compressive strength of 200-500 kg/cm2, tensile strength of 50-100 kg/cm2. It is durable with density of 2200-2400 kg/m3. Plain/ordinary concrete is the most common type.
Light weight concrete:
A concrete mix with having less density as compare to plain concrete is light weight concrete. It usually has density between 1450-1900 kg/m3.
Pumice and scoria, expand shales and clays type of aggregates are add up in manufacturing of lightweight concrete.
Light weight concrete has the property of low thermal conductivity as low as 0.3 W/mK. In other hand plain concrete has 10-12 W/mK thermal conductivity.
High density concrete:
A concrete mix which has higher density than ordinary concrete is high density concrete. It is also called heavyweight concrete. High density aggregates like crush stone included in manufacturing of this type of concrete.
It has density between 3000-4000 kg/m3. This type of concrete provides really good resistance against X-rays radiation. It is use in power plants and in X-ray room.
High-strength concrete types:
High strength concrete has the strength over 40 N/mm2 and can go upto 80 N/mm2. It is use to get specific properties like higher strength, high fire resistance etc. It is use in Burj Khalifa construction.
Which type of concrete is useful in high rise construction? High-strength concrete is the type which is use in high rise building construction.
A concrete type in which reinforcement is use. Reinforcement can be steel bars, rods and meshes.
It is use where there’s a need of tensile strength, because concrete is low in tensile strength and steel is higher in tensile strength. In result RCC is capable of bearing all the stresses.
Which concrete type use in buildings? Reinforcement concrete is use for building construction. e.g residential and commercial buildings.
Rienforcement concrete is most important concrete type.
Ready mix concrete can be any mix design grade as 1:2:4 or 1:3:6. Ready mix is same ordinary concrete but it is manufacture in batching plant and transport to the site.
What is ready mix concrete used for? Ready mix concrete is use at site, where there’s not enough space on site for concrete manufacturing or have less time and workmanship.
Precast concrete type is molded in a usable form which is cured for time and when it gets hard enough, it is then transported to the site.
What is precast concrete used for? Precast concrete is use for low rise and mid rise buildings. Its also use for office buildings.
Is precast concrete stronger? Precast is strong enough for construction. If there is a need of high strength, it can be order on demand.
Read in detail about precast concrete.
Steel fiber concrete:
It’s the type of concrete in which steel fiber of 30mm to 40mm long and 10-20 micron thin fiber are use in concrete. Steel fiber increase resilience against cracking.
It also increase tensile strength and flexibility of concrete. It is been use for overlay pavement of bridge, airports and industrial floor.
Glass fiber concrete:
A concrete type in which glass fiber is use. It is use in buildings exterior facades to give more appealing look. It is also a provide good thermal insulation.
Shotcrete is same as ordinary concrete but there’s a different placing method for shotcrete. It is place on surface with high air pressure nozzle.
Self compacting concrete:
Self compacting concrete compact by its own weight. There isn’t any need of vibrator. It has high workability. Is it also called flowing concrete.
Types of concrete:
There are different types of concrete slabs, according to their shape e.g.
- One-Way Flat Slab (If the breath is equal or more than 2 times of length)
- Two-Way Flat Slab (If the breath is less than 2 times of length)
- Kitchen Slab
- Sun Shade Slab
- Sunken Slab
- Cable Suspension Slab
- Pre-Tension Slab
- Waffle slab
- Pitched roof slab
- Post-tension slab
- Hollow core slab
- Hardy slab
- Dome slab
- Projected slab